A neural network is an information system that is modeled after the human brain and nervous system. The network consists of a large number of units that are separated into 3 separate types (1) input units, (2) output units, and (3) hidden units. These units model the 3 units of the human nervous system (1) sensory neurons (input), (2) motor neurons (output), and (3) all other neurons (hidden).
Examples of Neural Networks:
The US Army Corps of Engineers uses an Application of an Artificial Neural Network to Predict Tidal Currents in an Inlet
The Robust Tracking with a Neural Extended Kalman Filter (NEKF) project is an Office of Naval Research. The NEKF algorithm is used to improve motion-model prediction during maneuvers.